By the year, 1800 A.D., Kamehameha I became the first king of all Hawaiʻi by conquest when he united the Hawaiian islands. His first son, King Kamehameha II inherited the throne on May 20, 1819 followed by his second son, King Kamehameha III on June 6, 1825. King Kamehameha III created the first constitution in 1840 and secured treaties with other nations.
In 1839, a Royal Boarding School was founded as the "Chiefs Children's School" and was built on the lot where the old barracks use to situate, in back of ʻIolani Palace, where the State Capital of Hawai'i now stands. The school was created by King Kamehameha III for the purpose of grooming the highest ranking chief's children of the realm to be rulers. This ensured that the Hawaiian kingdom would continue through these aliʻi who were entitled to rule by rank.
As the Succession to the throne is named by the sovereign under a proper royal proclamation or a ratified and approved constitution. But upon failing to name an heir to the throne, and if the throne should become vacant, Article 22 of the Hawaiian constitution states that the Legislative Assembly shall elect by ballot some native ali`i of the Kingdom as successor to the throne.
King Kamehameha III gave first rights to the throne to these 15 ali'i children of his family to board in the Chiefs Children's School and officially proclaimed them eligible for the throne under the Constitutional Laws of the Hawaiian Kingdom.
These are the royal children and future rulers that King Kamehameha III claimed eligible to the throne by Royal Decree:
Alexander Liholiho (King Kamehameha IV)
Lot Kamehameha (King Kamehameha V)
Emma Rooke (Queen Emma)
William Lunalilo (King Lunalilo)
David Kalakaua (King Kalakaua)
Lydia Kamaka'eha (Queen Liliuokalani)
Elizabeth Keka'aniau La'anui
Jane Loeau Jasper
Peter Young Ka'eo
James Kaliokalani Kapa'akea
Mary Pa'a'aina (later admitted)
From the sister of Kamehameha III, selected were Princess Kinau's children, Prince Lot (became King Kamehameha V), Princess Victoria Kamamalu, Prince Moses Kekuaiwa & Prince Alexander Liholiho (became King Kamehameha IV).
From his brother, Ali'i Pauli Kaoleioku, selected was his great granddaughter, High Chiefess Bernice Pauahi
From his father's younger brother, Ali'i Keali'imaika'i, selected was his great, great granddaughter, High Chiefess Emma Na'ea Rooke and great great grandson, High Chief Peter Young Ka'eo.
From another younger brother of his father, Ali'i Kalaimamahu, selected was his great grandson,
High Chief William Charles Lunalilo (became King Lunalilo).
From his father's eldest brother, Ali'i Kalokuokamaile selected was his
great granddaughter, High Chiefess Elizabeth Keka'aniau La'anui.
From his grandfather's cousin, a direct line from one of the royal twins, Ali'i Kame'eiamoku and his brother, Keaweaheulu, their great great grandchildren, selected were:
High Chief David Kalakaua (became King Kalakaua),
High Chiefess Lydia Kamaka'eha (became Queen Lili`uokalani)
and High Chief James Kaliokalani.
Also from his grandfather's cousin, Kamehamehanui Ai`luau, daughters of Liliha III and Namaile were the
High Chiefess Jane Loeau Jasper and Abigail Maheha.
High Chiefess Mary Pa'a'ania was the daughter of
High Chiefess Kekela and Mr. Henry Lewis.
The Plaque at the entrance of Kawaiaha`o Church with the listing of the royal children who were eligible to the throne.
Kawaiaha`o Church was the church of the chiefs in the early 1800. The royal pews of the church was built for these ali`i children when they used to attend Sunday services. They would enter the church in a procession with their paired royal partners to the pews where they sat with the king:
First was Moses Kekuaiwa and Jane Loeau, next was Lot Kapuaiwa and Bernice Pauahi, then Alexander Liholiho with Abigail Maheha, followed by William Lunalilo and Emma Rooke, then came James Kaliokalani and Elizabeth Kekaaniau, after was David Kamehameha and Victoria Kamamalu, Peter Kaeo and Mary Paaaina, then John Pitt Kinau and Lydia Kamakaeha was the last to enter.
Queen Lili`uokalani & Princess Elizabeth Keka`aniau unveiled this tablet together when it was installed in the historic Kawaiaha`o Church on March 17, 1912.
They were the last two of these royal members
Drawing of the courtyard of the original Chief's Children's School as described by Princess Elizabeth Keka'aniau La'anui
The lantern was given by Mataio Kekuanao'a and was lit from dusk to dawn